Hospital speech-language pathology approach in oropharyngeal dysphagia and its motor and etiological associations
Hospital Speech-Language Pathology Approach in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
Keywords:Speech-Language Pathology; Ambulatory Care; Deglutition Disorders; Etiology.
Objective: To identify the profile of speech-language pathology in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia at a University Hospital and the associations between health conditions and the etiology of swallowing disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study, with analysis of medical records of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia treated at a University Hospital, of both sexes, attended from February to December 2018. A descriptive and association analysis of the evaluated variables was carried out, with a significance level of 0.05. Results: It was identified in the sample, consisting of 26 (51%) females and 25 (49%) males, with a mean of 57.1 years (± 18.6), presence of progressive neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (39.2 %), idiopathic (31.4%) and non-progressive (29.4%), in which the most performed speech-language pathology procedures were assessment (100%), giving support to observational issues during the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (96.1%), management of dysphagia (92.2%) and return and discharge conducts (49% and 25.5%, respectively). The multi-professional participation has conducted better decision-making for an adequate diagnosis and speech therapy approach that had aimed at the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as well the intervention approaches with techniques aimed at maneuvers, and neuromuscular conditioning in relation to disorders of the biomechanics of swallowing. There was a significant association between the presence of motor and balance changes with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia and difficulty in swallowing and choking symptoms as a sign of oropharyngeal dysphagia.
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